VDI 3198 PDF

VDI Coating (CVD, PVD) of cold forging tools. 1 Aug VDI [ Withdrawn ]. Coating (CVD, PVD) of cold forging tools. standard by Verband Deutscher Ingenieure / Association of German. using the spot method as described in the VDI German industry standard Being spot and static, the Rockwell test method (VDI ) does not give.

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Characterization of adherence for Ti6Al4V films RF magnetron sputter grown on stainless steels

Nowadays, the supply of low-cost prosthesis for replacing bones in humans, like the ones in artificial hips, is deficient. Scanning electron microscopy SEM results showed that the films are rather continuous, in despite of some porous observed. SEM micrographs were taken at x magnification, which is the recommended magnification in VDI procedure refer Section 3.

Conclusions Experiments assessing macroindentation adherence of Ti6Al4V films grown on stainless steel by RF magnetron sputtering were carried out. Received in revised form: The stress—strain field, which occurs during the indentation and the relaxation stages respectively, must be thoroughly considered in order to obtain secure conclusions, regarding the quality of the coating substrate system.

The observed combination of hard and tough character of films can be addressed to their monophasic and metallic character as well as to the nanometer character of film structures.

VDI indentation tests allowed the assessment of a set vi HF indexes that specify the level of film to substrate adherence. Strong variations in crystallite size were induced when the power applied to target was varied, while modifications in the chamber pressure induced only mild variations in that crystallite size.

VDI-Standard: VDI 3198 Coating (CVD, PVD) of cold forging tools

Every one of the depicted materials displays serious drawbacks among the claimed properties. For the target material the titanium alloy Ti6Al4V was used. In samples obtained with chamber pressure of 5x mbar and target applied power of W, the average hardness was 8. Phase identification was made using diffraction patterns obtained from XRD scans where the angular step was 0. According to Vidakis et al. Experiments of electron microscopy were carried out varying the acceleration voltage between 15 and 25 kV and the working distance between 8 and 15 mm.

Austenitic stainless steels, titanium alloys, and hidroxiapatita are widely employed for the production of prosthesis due to their low cost, good levels of biological compatibility, good bioactive response or high mechanical strength []. Mechanical Behaviour of Vi Materials, 1, pp Abstract Mono- or multi-layered coated compounds are powerful alternatives of conventional bulk materials, which normally illustrate a restricted surface performance. Recent progresses in surface engineering and materials science have triggered the development of a 318 variety of technical processes for manufacturing multi-structure materials, where these new materials have mechanical, tribological, or other functional properties that cannot be achieved from the individual traditional materials alone.


There exist diverse standardized and non-standardized experimental procedures for assessing film to substrate adherence [14,15]. Discussion Superior levels of film to substrate adherence were obtained, even though film hardness was very high around 10 GPa with regard to the hardness of the substrate around 1.

Several indentation imprints were made on top of each sample and then damage inside and around the imprints was evaluated using micrographs obtained in the scanning electron microscope. Generally, all samples displayed an intense pattern of sleep lines following circular directions of imprints. Growth of Ti6Al4V films by magnetron sputtering Thin films around 1 mm thick of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V were grown on samples of UNS S steel through RF magnetron sputtering, using an Alcatel HS apparatus, which consists of an RF magnetron and a deposition chamber evacuated using both mechanical and turbo-molecular pumps.

Consequently, several research groups in the region had already been carried out works where microstructure optimization of materials in surgical appliances and prostheses was targeted [1,2]. Stainless steels are not biologically active, and their biological compatibility is restricted; titanium alloys are rather expensive, and their levels of biological activity are rather restricted and; finally, hidroxiapatita is not as tough as it is necessary in that kind of surgical appliances and prostheses.

Among the major factors inducing the high levels of film to substrate adherence, the following can be listed: That is interpreted in this work as high reproducibility levels of adherence tests.

Nowadays, advanced and complicated techniques are induced in film production devices, leading in this way to the development of an extended variety of different coating types. Experiments assessing macroindentation adherence of Ti6Al4V films grown on stainless steel by RF magnetron sputtering were carried out. Film hardness was measured by carrying out indentation hardness tests on top of samples. His research work has been focused on Materials Science and Engineering, in the realm of metallic materials processing and properties.

Both, high reproducibility and high detectability character of the tests, allowed noticing even smooth variations in adherence.


January 31 th Five indentations were made in each sample, being the distance between them carefully set larger than ten times the indentation length. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads.

A commercially available alloy that has impurity levels lower than 0. Prior to film deposition, steel substrates were sputter cleaned for 10 min using plasma power of W.

Morphology and spatial distribution of defects in films were evaluated by examining sample surfaces in a scanning electron microscope. As lower was the level of film to substrate adherence, micrographs with more pronounced axial cracking and more evidence of debris detachment were obtained.

A Philips XL30 conventional microscope was used. Unfortunately, these materials coated with thin films have sharp variations in their mechanical properties and vd are prone to decohesion at the region of transition between film and substrate due to local adherence failure. Materials Samples of the vvi stainless steel UNS S, in the annealed condition, were used as substrate material.

Representative micrographs are shown; however reproducibility levels were high, as it was mentioned. He has been linked to the Universidad Cdi de Colombia as a full professor since vdu, where his research has been focused on material science, particularly on thin film processing as well as performance characterization, studying thin film optical, electrical and mechanical properties.

That is interpreted in this work as high detectability level of adherence tests.

Coating (CVD, PVD) of cold forging tools | VDI

Indentation experiments were carried out using a diamond-tip Otto Wolpert-Werke indenter and indentation load of kg-f. Results presented about hardness, morphological and chemical continuity of the films and film to substrate adherence, when analyzed in the light of results in literature [] show that materials in this research are adequate for using in surgical appliances and prostheses where high wear resistance, high toughness, and high ductility are a must.

Sputter deposition experiments varying both chamber pressure and target applied power were carried out.

Heterogeneities in chemical composition at different regions of the 31988, if they actually exist, were lower than the detection limit 1. English pdf Article in xml format Article references How to cite this article Automatic translation Send this article by e-mail.